Development of Porous Photopolymer Resin-SWCNT Produced by Digital Light Processing Technology Using for Bone Femur Application

Document Type : RESEARCH PAPER


1 1 Department of Orthopedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran 2 Bone and Joint Reconstruction Research Center, Shafa Orthopedic Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Bone and Joint Reconstruction Research Center, Shafa Orthopedic Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Orthopedic, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

4 Rothman Institute, Thomas Jefferson University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Philadelphia, PA, USA

5 Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

6 New Technologies Research Center, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran


Background: Although bone tissue has the unique characteristic of self-repair in fractures, bone grafting is needed in some
situations. The synthetic substances that are used in such situations should bond to the porous bones, be biocompatible
and biodegradable, and do not stimulate the immune responses. Biomaterial engineering is the science of finding and
designing novel products. In principle, the most suitable biodegradable matrix should have adequate compressive strength
of more than two megapascals. At this degradation rate, the matrix can eventually be replaced by the newly formed bone,
and the osteoprogenitor cells migrate into the scaffold. This study aimed to evaluate the fabrication of a scaffold made of
polymer-ceramic nanomaterials with controlled porosity resembling that of spongy bone tissue.
Methods: A compound of resin polymer, single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) as reinforcement, and hydroxyapatite
(HA) were dissolved using an ultrasonic and magnetic stirrer. A bio-nano-composite scaffold model was designed in the
SolidWorks software and built using the digital light processing (DLP) method. Polymer-HA scaffolds with the solvent system
were prepared with similar porosity to that of human bones.
Results: HA-polymer scaffolds had a random irregular microstructure with homogenizing porous architecture. The SWCNT
improved the mechanical properties of the sample from 25 MPa to 36 MPa besides having a proper porosity value near
55%, which can enhance the transformation and absorption of protein in human bone.
Conclusion: The combined bio-nanocomposite had a suitable porous structure with acceptable strength that allowed it to
be used as a bone substitute in orthopedic surgery.


1. Yang K, Wei J, Wang C, Li Y. A study on in vitro and
in vivo bioactivity of nano hydroxyapatite/polymer
biocomposite. Chinese Science Bulletin. 2007;
2. Oyane A, Kim HM, Furuya T, Kokubo T, Miyazaki T,
Nakamura T. Preparation and assessment of revised
simulated body fluids. Journal of Biomedical
Materials Research Part A: An Official Journal of
the Society for Biomaterials, the Japanese Society
for Biomaterials, and the Australian Society
for Biomaterials and the Korean Society for
Biomaterials. 2003; 65(2):188-95.
3. Voor MJ, Arts JJ, Klein SA, Walschot LH, Verdonschot
N, Buma P. Is hydroxyapatite cement an alternative
for allograft bone chips in bone grafting procedures?
A mechanical and histological study in a rabbit
cancellous bone defect model. Journal of Biomedical 
Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials: An
Official Journal of the Society for Biomaterials, the
Japanese Society for Biomaterials, and the Australian
Society for Biomaterials and the Korean Society for
Biomaterials. 2004; 71(2):398-407.
4. Salami MA, Kaveian F, Rafienia M, Saber-
Samandari S, Khandan A, Naeimi M. Electrospun
polycaprolactone/lignin-based nanocomposite as
a novel tissue scaffold for biomedical applications.
Journal of medical signals and sensors. 2017;
5. Hulbert, SF, Klawitter, JJ, Leonard, B. Advanced
series in ceramics Volume 1: An introduction to
bioceramics. In Hench LL. and Wilson J. editor,
Singapore: World Scientific Pub; 1993.
6. Khandan A, Jazayeri H, Fahmy MD, Razavi M.
Hydrogels: Types, structure, properties, and 
applications. Biomat Tiss Eng. 2017; 4(27):143-69.
7. Bohner M. Calcium orthophosphates in medicine:
from ceramics to calcium phosphate cements. Injury.
2000; 31:D37-47.
8. Polizu S, Savadogo O, Poulin P, Yahia LH. Applications
of carbon nanotubes-based biomaterials in
biomedical nanotechnology. Journal of nanoscience
and nanotechnology. 2006; 6(7):1883-904.
9. Do Nascimento C, Issa JP, de Oliveira RR, Iyomasa
MM, Siéssere S, Regalo SC, et al. Biomaterials applied
to the bone healing process. Int J Morphol. 2007;
10. Brighton CT, Hunt RM. Early histologic and
ultrastructural changes in microvessels of periosteal
callus. Journal of orthopaedic trauma. 1997; 11(4):
11. Heydary HA, Karamian E, Poorazizi E, Heydaripour
J, Khandan A. Electrospun of polymer/bioceramic
nanocomposite as a new soft tissue for biomedical
applications. Journal of Asian Ceramic Societies.
2015; 3(4):417-25.
12. Newman P, Minett A, Ellis-Behnke R, Zreiqat H.
Carbon nanotubes: their potential and pitfalls
for bone tissue regeneration and engineering.
Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, biology and medicine.
2013; 9(8):1139-58.
13. Xiaoming L, Uo M, Akasaka T, Abe S, Watari F, Hong
G, et al. Maturation of osteoblast-like SaoS2 induced
by carbon nanotubes. Biomedical Materials (Bristol.
Online). 2009; 4.
14. Khandan A, Karamian E, Bonakdarchian M.
Mechanochemical synthesis evaluation of nanocrystalline
bone-derived bioceramic powder using for
bone tissue engineering. Dental Hypotheses. 2014;
15. Stout DA, Webster TJ. Carbon nanotubes for stem cell
control. Materials Today. 2012; 15(7-8):312-8.
16. Elias KL, Price RL, Webster TJ. Enhanced functions
of osteoblasts on nanometer diameter carbon fibers.
Biomaterials. 2002; 23(15):3279-87.
17. Saber-Samandari S, Saber-Samandari S, Kiyazar S,
Aghazadeh J, Sadeghi A. In vitro evaluation for apatiteforming
ability of cellulose-based nanocomposite
scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. International
journal of biological macromolecules. 2016; 86:434-42.
18. Aghadavoudi F, Golestanian H, Tadi Beni Y.
Investigating the effects of resin crosslinking
ratio on mechanical properties of epoxy‐based
nanocomposites using molecular dynamics. Polymer
Composites. 2017; 38:E433-42.
19. Karbasi S, Zarei M, Foroughi MR. Effect of Multiwall
Carbon Nanotubes (MWNTs) on Structural and
Mechanical Properties of Poly (3-hydroxybutirate)
Electrospun Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering
Applications. Scientia Iranica. 2016; 23(6):3145-52.
20. Vatankhah E, Prabhakaran MP, Semnani D, Razavi S,
Morshed M, Ramakrishna S. Electrospun tecophilic/
gelatin nanofibers with potential for small diameter
blood vessel tissue engineering. Biopolymers. 2014;
21. Khandan A, Ozada N. Bredigite-Magnetite
(Ca7MgSi4O16-Fe3O4) nanoparticles: A study on
their magnetic properties. Journal of Alloys and
Compounds. 2017; 726:729-36.
22. Najafinezhad A, Abdellahi M, Saber-Samandari
S, Ghayour H, Khandan A. Hydroxyapatite-Mtype
strontium hexaferrite: a new composite for
hyperthermia applications. Journal of Alloys and
Compounds. 2018; 734:290-300.
23. Ghayour H, Abdellahi M, Ozada N, Jabbrzare S,
Khandan A. Hyperthermia application of zinc doped
nickel ferrite nanoparticles. Journal of Physics and
Chemistry of Solids. 2017; 111:464-72.
24. Ghayour H, Abdellahi M, Nejad MG, Khandan A,
Saber-Samandari S. Study of the effect of the Zn 2+
content on the anisotropy and specific absorption
rate of the cobalt ferrite: the application of Co 1−
x Zn x Fe 2 O 4 ferrite for magnetic hyperthermia.
Journal of the Australian Ceramic Society. 2018;
25. Khandan A, Ozada N, Saber-Samandari S, Nejad
MG. On the mechanical and biological properties
of bredigite-magnetite (Ca7MgSi4O16-Fe3O4)
nanocomposite scaffolds. Ceramics International.
2018; 44(3):3141-8.
26. Abdellahi M, Najfinezhad A, Saber-Samanadari S,
Khandan A, Ghayour H. Zn and Zr co-doped M-type
strontium hexaferrite: Synthesis, characterization
and hyperthermia application. Chinese journal of
physics. 2018; 56(1):331-9.
27. Sahmani S, Khandan A, Saber-Samandari S, Aghdam MM.
Vibrations of beam-type implants made of 3D printed
bredigite-magnetite bio-nanocomposite scaffolds
under axial compression: Application, communication
and simulation. Ceramics International. 2018;
28. Sahmani S, Khandan A, Saber-Samandari S, Aghdam
MM. Nonlinear bending and instability analysis of
bioceramics composed with magnetite nanoparticles:
Fabrication, characterization, and simulation.
Ceramics International. 2018; 44(8):9540-9.
29. Abdellahi M, Karamian E, Najafinezhad A, Ranjabar
F, Chami A, Khandan A. Diopside-magnetite; A novel
nanocomposite for hyperthermia applications.
Journal of the mechanical behavior of biomedical
materials. 2018; 77:534-8.
30. Abdellahi M, Najafinezhad A, Ghayour H, Saber-
Samandari S, Khandan A. Preparing diopside
nanoparticle scaffolds via space holder method:
Simulation of the compressive strength and porosity.
Journal of the mechanical behavior of biomedical
materials. 2017; 72:171-81.
31. Monshi M, Esmaeili S, Kolooshani A, Moghadas
BK, Saber-Samandari S, Khandan A. A novel threedimensional
printing of electroconductive scaffolds
for bone cancer therapy application. Nanomedicine
Journal. 2020; 7(2):138-48.
32. Esmaeili S, Khandan A, Saber-Samandari S.
Mechanical performance of three-dimensional bionanocomposite
scaffolds designed with digital light
processing for biomedical applications. Iranian
Journal of Medical Physics. 2018; 15(Special Issue 
12th. Iranian Congress of Medical Physics):328-.
33. Farazin A, Akbari Aghdam H, Motififard M,
Aghadavoudi F, Kordjamshidi A, Saber-Samandari S,
et al. A polycaprolactone bio-nanocomposite bone
substitute fabricated for femoral fracture approaches:
molecular dynamic and micromechanical investigation.
Journal of Nanoanalysis. 2019; 6(3):172-84.