Compartment Syndrome of the Calf Due to Nicolau Syndrome

Document Type : CASE REPORT


1 The Department of Orthopedics, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

2 The Department of Surgery, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran


 We report a case of Nicolau syndrome in a 15 months old girl following of an intramuscular injection of penicillin 6.3.3 in her left buttock. This case is unique because she developed compartment syndrome in her left calf far from her injection site. Her toe’s tips gangrened in the course of her ailment. We hypothesized that the compartment syndrome might be produced by a probable intra-arterial injection that had produced embolic obstruction of the small and medium size arteries in her leg or a probable perineural or periarteial injection had produced secondary sympathetic stimulation, extensive vasospasm, compromised microcirculation and the development of compartment syndrome.


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