A Proposal of a Design for the Bionic Hand: Describing the Integration, Motor Controlling System, Stereognosis, and Proprioception Sensory Feedback Components



1 Orthopedics Research Center, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

2 Mechanical Engineering Department, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

3 Faculty of Art, Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran



Despite recent advancements in bionic upper limb prostheses technology, the rejection rate by users 
remains unacceptably high. Various factors contribute to this issue, such as limited functionality, 
complex control mechanisms, and discomfort, with most of these concerns being documented solely 
through self-assessment surveys. In this article, we introduce our proposed four components for an 
integrated bionic hand aimed at making it closely resemble a natural hand. These components i nclude 
an integrated intramedullary stem, a kineticomyographic motor control system, sensory feedback for 
stereognosis, and sensory feedback for proprioception.
 Level of evidence: V


Main Subjects

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