Different Modification Methods of Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) Bone Cement for Orthopedic Surgery Applications



1 1 Orthopedic Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Science, Mashhad, Iran 2 Bone and Joint Research Laboratory, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Science, Mashhad, Iran

2 1 Orthopedic Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Science, Mashhad, Iran 2 Bone and Joint Research Laboratory, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Science, Mashhad, Iran 3 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran


In clinical practice, bone defects that occur alongside tumors, infections, or other bone diseases present 
significant challenges in the orthopedic field. Although autologous and allogeneic grafts are introduced 
as common traditional remedies in this field, their applications have a series of limitations. Various 
approaches have been attempted to treat large and irregularly shaped bone defects; however, their 
success has been less than optimal due to a range of issues related to material and design. However , 
in recent years, additive manufacturing has emerged as a promising solution to the challenge of creating 
implants that can be perfectly tailored to fit individual defects during surgical procedures. By fabrication 
of constructs with specific designs using this technique, surgeons are able to achieve much better 
outcomes for patients. Polymers, ceramics, and metals have been used as biomaterials in Orthopedic 
Surgery fields. Polymeric scaffolds have been used successfully in total joint replacements, soft tissue 
reconstruction, joint fusion, and as fracture fixation devices. The use of polymeric biomaterials, either 
in the form of pre-made solid scaffolds or injectable pastes that can harden in situ, shows great promise 
as a substitute for commonly used autografts and allografts. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is one 
of the most widely used polymer cement in orthopedic surgery. The present paper begins with an 
introduction and will then provide an overview of the properties, advantages/disadvantages, 
applications, and modifications of PMMA bone cement.
 Level of evidence: III


Main Subjects

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