Biochemical Aspects of Scaffolds for Cartilage Tissue Engineering; from Basic Science to Regenerative Medicine



1 1 Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran. 2 Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran 3 Orthopedic Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

2 Orthopedic Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

3 Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

4 Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran. 2 Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran


Chondral defects are frequent and important causes of pain and disability. Cartilage has limited self-repair and 
regeneration capacity. The ideal approach for articular cartilage defects is the regeneration of hyaline cartilage with 
sustainable symptom-free constructs. Tissue engineering provides new strategies for the regeneration of functional 
cartilage tissue through optimized scaffolds with architectural, mechanical, and biochemical properties similar to the 
native cartilage tissue. In this review, the basic science of cartilage structure, interactions between proteins, stem cells, 
as well as biomaterials, scaffold characteristics and fabrication methods, as well as current and potential therapies in 
regenerative medicine will be discussed mostly from a biochemical point of view. Furthermore, the recent trends in 
scaffold-based therapies and supplementary factors in cartilage tissue engineering will be considered. 
Level of evidence: I


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