Editorial: What Is Peer Review?

Document Type : EDITORIAL


1 Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University

2 Orthopedic Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran


The first journal that formalized the peer review
process is The Philosophical Transactions of the
Royal Society, the first and longest-running journal
launched in 1665 by Henry Oldenburg (1618- 1677) (1).
The review of a research paper starts with the ‘Internal
Review’ process. All authors must read the article
and reconcile their comments before submission. The
external review process begins after article submission,
and the editor assigns the paper to the outside reviewers
unrelated to the work of the study. External reviewers
evaluate the submitted article for quality, accuracy, and
completeness based on the journal’s requirements.
Reviewers’ feedback includes accepting, rejecting, or
requesting a revision to the article. The editor determines
the final decision, but the reviewers’ comments and
recommendations show if the article is amenable to
improvement by revision.


1. The Royal Society. UK: The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal 
Society; 1665. Available from:https://royalsociety.org/journals/
2. Publishing Research Consortium Peer review survey 2015. [Place 
unknown]: Elsevier; 2015. Available from: https://www.elsevier.
3. McMaster Online Rating of Evidence. [Place unknown]: HiRU 
McMaster University; [date unknown]. Available from:https://hiru.
4. Publones. [Place unknown]: Clarivate; 2012. Available 
from: https://publons.com/about/home/