Translation, linguistic validation, and readability of the Spanish version of VISA-H scale in elite athletes

Document Type : RESEARCH PAPER


1 Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Malaga

2 Medical Services. Malaga Football Club, Malaga

3 Vithas Xanit International Hospital. Benalmadena, Malaga

4 Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, School of Medicine, University of L’Aquila, L’Aquila.


Object: Data regarding the diagnosis of Proximal Hamstring Tendinopathy (PHT) is limited. There is a need for a standardized, valid, and reliable instrument for evaluating PHT among Spanish population. The purpose of this study was to linguistically validate and cross-culturally adapt the Spanish version of the VISA-H for Spanish population and to assess its readability, initial feasibility, appropriateness and acceptability.
Methods: Cross-cultural adaptation was done according to established guidelines. Process included 5 steps: independent translations, synthesis of the translations, back-translations, expert committee, and pre-test. The linguistic validation of the questionnaire followed a standard methodology that included comprehension test interviews to assess the relevance, understanding and acceptability of the VISA-H. Comprehension was analyzed with cognitive interviews of 18 Spanish Professional basketball and soccer players (n = 8 male, n = 10 female end-users, healthy individuals at risk), using think-aloud and probing techniques.
Results: All subjects (18/18) reported that the items were clear and did not cause upset. Additionally, every respondent had no difficulty in completing the form and found it fairly easy. No difficulties with the instructions were reported. Readability score resulted in adequate levels of understanding (Fernandez-Huerta score of 67.5), showing high level of acceptability.
Conclusions: The results of the linguistic and semantic validation conducted with health risky population enable the identification that the Sp-VISA-H was well accepted and easily understood by the participants. Further testing on PHT patients is needed to corroborate these preliminary data.


Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 25 December 2021
  • Receive Date: 24 September 2020
  • Revise Date: 19 December 2021
  • Accept Date: 23 December 2021
  • First Publish Date: 25 December 2021