Effects of vitamin D3 fortified low-fat dairy products on bone density measures in adults with abdominal obesity: a randomized clinical trial

Document Type : RESEARCH PAPER


1 Azadi square, Mashhad, Iran

2 International UNESCO center for Health-Related Basic Sciences and Human Nutrition, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

3 Nuclear Medicine Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

4 Student Research Committee, Islamic azad University, Mashhad Branch, Mashhad, Iran

5 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

6 Department of Nutrition Sciences, Varastegan Institute for Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

7 Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical sciences and health Services, Yazd, Iran

8 Division of Medical Education, Brighton & Sussex Medical School, Falmer, Brighton, Sussex, UK


Background and aims: Bone disease related fractures constitute a heavy burden on the healthcare system and economy. Vitamin D is an important regulator of the bone health and its deficiency is a global issue. We aimed to evaluate the effect of the 1,500 IU nano-encapsulated vitamin D used for fortifying low-fat dairy products (milk and yogurt) on bone health parameters.
Methods: This parallel totally blinded, randomized controlled trial as a part of SUNIVA study (Ultraviolet Intake by Nutritional Approach), was conducted on 306 individuals with abdominal obesity who were randomly assigned to one of four groups: fortified low-fat milk (1500 IU nano-encapsulated vitamin D3 per 200 g/d), non-fortified low-fat milk, fortified low-fat yogurt (1500 IU nano-encapsulated vitamin D3 per 150 g/d), non-fortified low-fat yogurt, for a 10 weeks trial from January to March 2019. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) were measured at baseline and at the end of the trial.
Results: TBS and BMD were defined as primary and secondary outcomes and the results of this trial showed no significant differences between intervention and control groups on study outcomes (p-value > 0.05).
Conclusion: This trial demonstrated no significant effect of nano-encapsulated vitamin D fortified milk and yogurt on BMD and TBS which highlight the need for further longer-term trials regarding bone health outcomes to establish optimal doses of fortification.
Level of evidence


Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 25 October 2021
  • Receive Date: 26 June 2021
  • Revise Date: 21 September 2021
  • Accept Date: 18 October 2021
  • First Publish Date: 25 October 2021