Document Type : RESEARCH PAPER
Azadi square, Mashhad, Iran
International UNESCO center for Health-Related Basic Sciences and Human Nutrition, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
Nuclear Medicine Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
Student Research Committee, Islamic azad University, Mashhad Branch, Mashhad, Iran
Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
Department of Nutrition Sciences, Varastegan Institute for Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical sciences and health Services, Yazd, Iran
Division of Medical Education, Brighton & Sussex Medical School, Falmer, Brighton, Sussex, UK
Background and aims: Bone disease related fractures constitute a heavy burden on the healthcare system and economy. Vitamin D is an important regulator of the bone health and its deficiency is a global issue. We aimed to evaluate the effect of the 1,500 IU nano-encapsulated vitamin D used for fortifying low-fat dairy products (milk and yogurt) on bone health parameters.
Methods: This parallel totally blinded, randomized controlled trial as a part of SUNIVA study (Ultraviolet Intake by Nutritional Approach), was conducted on 306 individuals with abdominal obesity who were randomly assigned to one of four groups: fortified low-fat milk (1500 IU nano-encapsulated vitamin D3 per 200 g/d), non-fortified low-fat milk, fortified low-fat yogurt (1500 IU nano-encapsulated vitamin D3 per 150 g/d), non-fortified low-fat yogurt, for a 10 weeks trial from January to March 2019. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) were measured at baseline and at the end of the trial.
Results: TBS and BMD were defined as primary and secondary outcomes and the results of this trial showed no significant differences between intervention and control groups on study outcomes (p-value > 0.05).
Conclusion: This trial demonstrated no significant effect of nano-encapsulated vitamin D fortified milk and yogurt on BMD and TBS which highlight the need for further longer-term trials regarding bone health outcomes to establish optimal doses of fortification.
Level of evidence