Influencing Factors on COVID-19 Infection Despite Protective Measures Among Orthopedic Residents: Air Ventilation and Contact Duration



Orthopedic Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran


Despite all protective measures, the number of contacts and cumulative contact duration in the frontline screening seem to be the influencing factors. Three out 5 of our first year orthopedic residents showed symptoms of the disease 2-3 weeks after starting their tasks in the COVID-19 floor. Other residents that were only visiting patients in the COVID floor did not become symptomatic which also highlights the role of ventilation. We assumed that the ventilation in the Emergency Screening area was not as efficient as the COVID floors and ICUs because only the residents visiting patients in the frontline became symptomatic. The bright side of this scenario was that the symptoms were mild with no or minimal pathology on chest X-ray, which deemed unlikely if the protective measures were insufficient as mortalities were high among providers in the beginning of the crises.


1. Coronavirus cases. worldometers. Available at: URL:;
2. Wax RS, Christian MD. Practical recommendations
for critical care and anesthesiology teams caring
for novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) patients. Can J 
Anaesth. 2020; In Press.
3. Liu M, He P, Liu HG, Wang XJ, Li FJ, Chen S, et al. Clinical
characteristics of 30 medical workers infected with
new coronavirus pneumonia Zhonghua Jie He He Hu
Xi Za Zhi. 2020; 43(3):209-14.