Document Type: CURRENT CONCEPTS REVIEW
Department of Orthopaedics, P.D Hinduja National Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Veer Savarkar Marg, Mahim, Mumbai, India
Head of Surgey & Orthopaedics, Consultant in Orthopaedics Trauma & Arthroplasty, P.D Hinduja National Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Veer Savarkar Marg Mahim, Mumbai, India
Consultant in Orthopaedic Oncology & Soft Tissue Tumors, Hinduja National Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Veer Savarkar Marg Mahim, Mumbai, India
Giant Cell tumors (GCT) are benign tumors with potential for aggressive behavior and capacity to metastasize. Although rarely lethal, benign bone tumors may be associated with a substantial disturbance of the local bony architecture that can be particularly troublesome in peri-articular locations. Its histogenesis remains unclear. It is characterized by a proliferation of mononuclear stromal cells and the presence of many multi- nucleated giant cells with homogenous distribution.
There is no widely held consensus regarding the ideal treatment method selection. There are advocates of varying surgical techniques ranging from intra-lesional curettage to wide resection. As most giant cell tumors are benign and are located near a joint in young adults, several authors favor an intralesional approach that preserves anatomy of bone in lieu of resection. Although GCT is classified as a benign lesion, few patients develop progressive lung metastases with poor outcomes. Treatment is mainly surgical. Options of chemotherapy and radiotherapy are reserved for selected cases. Recent advances in the understanding of pathogenesis are essential to develop new treatments for this locally destructive primary bone tumor.