Background: Compartment syndrome occurs when increasing pressures in a fascial compartment impair circulatory flow. It is most common in lower leg or upper extremity after a traumatic injury such as a fracture. Atraumatic posterior thigh compartment syndrome is a rare but serious condition. Urgent management with emergent fasciotomy is required so as to prevent serious complications and long term neurological deficits.
Case: We document a case of atraumatic posterior thigh compartment syndrome that presented as an acute sciatic nerve palsy and required emergent fasciotomy. The patient was successfully treated with fasciotomy however his course was complicated by rhabdomyolysis induced acute renal failure that required hemodialysis.
Level of Evidence: Level V