Document Type: CURRENT CONCEPTS REVIEW
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid, Spain
Prevention is essential for avoiding the complications of muscle hematomas (pseudotumous, compartment syndrome and peripheral nerve lesions) in hemophilic patients. This is achieved through early diagnosis of muscle hematomas and proper long-term hematological treatment until they have resolved (confirmed by image studies). Ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage could be beneficial in terms of achieving better and faster symptom relief. When suspecting a haemophilic pseudotumor, biopsy will help us confirm the diagnosis and rule out true tumors (chondrosarcoma, liposarcoma, synovial sarcoma) that sometimes mimic hemophilic pseudotumour. Surgical removal of hemophilic pseudotumor is the best solution. As alternatives, there are curettage and filling with cancellous bone and radiotherapy (when surgery is contraindicated). Preoperative arterial embolization (ideally 2 weeks before surgery) helps control intraoperative bleeding during surgery for giant pelvic pseudotumor.